Prof. Horovitz is interested in allostery, i.e. the ways by which different and often distant parts of a protein molecule communicate and cooperate with each other. His studies focus on chaperonins, which are nano-machines that assist protein folding by undergoing ATP-fueled coordinated motions in time and space. He is interested in the mechanisms by which folding is assisted by chaperonins and in unraveling why some proteins (but not others) need such assistance. He is also interested in developing methods for characterizing and understanding allostery in general.